After the holidays, more than one will return to their daily routine with some extra pounds. Thus, for many, one of the first objectives of the year will be to lose weight accumulated by the excesses of Christmas. But beware, because we will have to take into account that lose the weight gained during the holidays is not the most difficult, but maintaining ideal weight in the long term. Thus the experts indicate it. And in case outside little, part of our heritage could contribute to it more or less difficult to get lose weight and maintain it.
Half of the variation in size and weight between people is attributed to the genetic makeup of each, which in addition is also involved to some extent in the response body to the loss or gain of weight. So far we have identified different genes and metabolic pathways associated with the risk of obesity and other weight-related features.
The importance of knowing and understanding the influence of genes on metabolism and weight, as well as the growing problem of obesity in some societies has led to think about the possibility of using genomic information to personalize weight loss programs. With this idea, different us health institutes. UU participated in the creation of a working group responsible for reviewing the genetic factors involved in weight gain and loss and identify challenges and perspectives of incorporating Genomics into new treatment strategies. The results and conclusions of the Working Group have just be published in a review in the journal Obesity.
"Obesity researchers have advanced tremendously in our knowledge of which directs the nutritional behavior, the fat cells are formed and how metabolism is altered before and after the onset of obesity," indicates Molly Bray, Science Professor of nutrition at the University of Texas at Austin. "It is time to take the large amount of data and find ways to apply it more effective treatments for obesity and other related conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer."
The researchers suggest that despite multiple genetic variants associated with variables related to volume and body weight, it is possible that measures or collected phenotypes are not suitable to capture all of the associated genetic variability, so suggest that new phenotypes or variables should be used to study more informative.
Regarding the use of genetic variants to predict the response to treatments for obesity, after reviewing various studies, the authors conclude in the existence of evidence that the genetic composition of an individual can influence the effectiveness of strategies to lose weight.
Participation in the loss or gain of weight of other regulatory systems of the energy balance in the body is also assessed at work: epigenetic mechanisms such as the methylation of DNA or the modification of histones, which act as intermediaries between the atmosphere and the genome to modulate the risk to obesity, or the Microbiome, which can intervene in the ability to metabolize nutrients obtained from the diet.
Then the authors consider different behaviors that can mediate between the genomic variation and the measures of size or body mass and reviewed available information on the genetics of behavior habits before the meal, food preferences and physical activity.
Another section of the article is dedicated to assess whether genomic data obtained in relation to metabolism and other aspects that affect body weight could be implemented in a clinical setting for customized weight loss programs. In this case, the authors consider as critical to the success of such incorporation, not only understanding biological level of the mechanisms that connect genes and weight, but also the ability to communicate the strategy to the patients and motivate a change in their behavior. "To advance the field of personalized weight loss, a combination of the genotype of the individual, along with the unique underlying pathophysiology, should be used to develop dietary recommendations and physical activity be directed to the metabolism of each person," State the authors.
Finally, the authors exposed prospects of future for the incorporation of genomics in personalized weight loss plans. At this point stand out as something necessary to improve competence and expertise in genetics and genomics, by part, both the clinical and medical personnel and patients and their families. In addition, are running that with recent technological improvements will be easier to get information from patients at different levels (genomic, metabolomic, demographic…), which increases the demand for innovative studies on the subject.
Bray indicates that while prevention would, without a doubt, the best approximation, today millions of obese individuals who need effective strategies and long-term to lose weight and improve your health. ' When people hear that there are genes that may play a role in the success of your weight loss do not say 'Great, no need to exercise anymore', but that actually say ' thank you. ' Someone finally recognizes that it is more difficult for me than for others,"' says the researcher. "Then I think that they are a little more lenient with themselves and are more motivated to make a change."
Reference: Bray MS, et to the. NIH working group report-using genomic information to guide weight management: From universal to precision treatment. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 jan; 24 (1): 14-22. DOI: 10.1002/oby.21381.